Equifax: WTF

Sorry. I waited to weigh in on the “dumpster fire” (credit to Brian Krebs) that is the Equifax breach because I wanted to see if those impacted expand beyond the US. They do.  If it was Apache Struts. It was. And if things got worse. Don’t cry for me Argentina but they just did.

How do you say I’m sorry for losing the confidential data of 143 million people who are your customers? You don’t. Certainly not if you are Equifax, one of the three largest bureaus for credit reports on consumers globally. You make them wait. And then, you sell them a half-baked service to fix the problem you made.  The site known as equifaxsecurity2017.com (sorry – not linking it here) is, in the words of Brian Krebs, “completely broken at best, and little more than a stalling tactic or sham at worst”.  It was flagged as a phishing site, and provided inconsistent responses.

And help comes with big strings. The offer for a year of free credit monitoring by the same firm that f*cked up in the first place has some dual-edged fine print to absolve Equifax of their responsibilities, originally stating that those who consent forfeit their rights to participate or launch a class action suit, or receive any benefits from a suit. They have since amended the injurious clause (see – I can speak legal too!) to say it “does not apply to this cybersecurity incident.” Insult to injury is that victims would have to pay for all the subsequent years of credit monitoring.  Freezing your credit is far cheaper, and effective.

We should be worried. Over 200K Visa and Mastercard holders are at risk of fraudulent purchases at the least because attackers have their account numbers, expiration dates and cardholder names.

Now, let’s talk about “Apache Struts”. Which has been flagged three times this year. Struts is hard to patch because it requires more migration and a lot more testing, which is impact and cost to business, but it happens to be used in over 60% of corporations on their major web server applications. There was a massive critical patch alert issued back around March for a zero day being actively exploited. Zero day means you’re not ready to fix it but attackers are ready to move. Guess what? The Struts flaw was unpatched back in May, when the attackers hit.

Jeff Williams is the co-founder and CTO of Contrast Security and explained the severity of this flaw which allows attackers to take over a Web host with just one HTTP request.

“This vulnerability was scored CVSS 10/10 – the highest rating. Within hours of the disclosure, we started seeing widespread automated attacks attempting to exploit this vulnerability. Those attacks are still ongoing…Essentially, an attacker could send a single HTTP request – just like the ones your browser sends – except with a specially crafted header that contains the attack.”

And then there is what happened in Argentina. Earlier this week,  it was reported by investigators who were looking into the risk to Argentina that “an online portal designed to let Equifax employees in Argentina manage credit report disputes from consumers in that country was wide open, protected by perhaps the most easy-to-guess password combination ever: “admin/admin.” I can’t even. The good news is that they took the portal down after Krebs gave them a call.

Do I sound bitter? Sorry not sorry. And so far, I am not one of the confirmed compromised. But oh, I am waiting for that shoe to drop. It has taken a ridiculous length of time for anyone in authority in Canada to address this. I get that we are polite to the point of complacency but come on! Thursday our privacy commissioner, Daniel Therrien, finally stepped in, claiming he had learned via complaints and the press, not from the source. The US has more regulations on credit reporting agencies than we have in Canada, where they are regulated by individual provinces and territories. According to Tamir Israel, who is a staff lawyer with the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic in Ottawa, “because of that mismatch, it falls through the cracks a little”. Per an article by Nestor Arellano in IT Canada Online:

“We have advised Equifax to provide information to affected Canadians as soon as possible and we expect the company to adopt measures to help affected Canadians,” Therrien said. “…Our office is urging Equifax to find a solution to permit Canadians to find out if they are affected as soon as possible.”

Now there is full on call for investigation. Meanwhile, the Canadian Automobile Association has informed 10,000 of its members they are at risk. Per Ian Jack, CAA managing director of communications and government relations, the information of those Canadian members who signed up for the identity protection program was stored with – wait for it – Equifax USA. That would be the sound of the other shoe dropping.

But wait – there is a happy-ish ending. News is just being released that both the CIO, David Webb, and CSO, Susan Mauldin, of Equifax are retiring. Immediately. That’s the first good news we’ve had.

https://krebsonsecurity.com/2017/09/equifax-hackers-stole-200k-credit-card-accounts-in-one-fell-swoop/

https://krebsonsecurity.com/2017/09/ayuda-help-equifax-has-my-data/

https://krebsonsecurity.com/2017/09/equifax-breach-response-turns-dumpster-fire/

http://itincanadaonline.ca/index.php/security/2273-equifax-blames-apache-vulnerability-canada-s-privacy-chief-weighs-in-on-breach

https://www.programmableweb.com/news/how-not-to-be-next-equifax/analysis/2017/09/08

http://www.ctvnews.ca/business/caa-says-10-000-consumers-could-be-equifax-hack-victims-1.3589848

https://www.darkreading.com/threat-intelligence/equifax-cio-cso-step-down/d/d-id/1329907

https://www.darkreading.com/attacks-breaches/ftc-opens-probe-into-equifax-data-breach/d/d-id/1329889?piddl_msgid=329384#msg_329384

 

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1 Billion Accounts Breached: Are YOU in here?

pwndedd

If you haven’t heard, there are currently about 1 billion accounts caught in two massive breaches: Exploit.in and AntiPublic. I’m one of that billion, and so was a family member. So are work colleagues. So that’s why I’m writing this – for the people I want to protect.

Security researcher Troy Hunt has been actively working on these breaches and getting notifications out. Among the key concerns raised was credential stuffing.

Credential stuffing is the automated injection of breached username/password pairs in order to fraudulently gain access to user accounts. This is a subset of the brute force attack category: large numbers of spilled credentials are automatically entered into websites until they are potentially matched to an existing account, which the attacker can then hijack for their own purposes.

As Troy lays out -and we need to be reminded of – this matters to us because:

  • It’s enormously effective due to the password reuse problem
  • It’s hard for organisations to defend against because a successful “attack” is someone logging on with legitimate credentials
  • It’s very easily automatable; you simply need software which will reproduce the logon process against a target website
  • There are readily available tools and credential lists that enable anyone to try their hand at credential stuffing

You can read his site to see more. So what that leads to is stuff like this:

Exploit.in is 111 text files large at 24 GB, a mountain of email addresses paired with passwords Given Troy’s research do far, of the 593,427,119 unique email addresses contained, there are accurate ie valid creds and data that isn’t already compromised so fresh kill. There are only 222 million duplicates between the lists, so that means 63% of the accounts in Exploit are different from the 457,962,538 addresses in AntiPublic.

The numbers are staggering, but what we need to be “impressed” by is what led to this. It’s the same root causes, known failings and weaknesses and bad habits that have accumulated as data has accumulated. We all know how much easier it is to fix a problem in the early stages.

So the AntiPublic tool verifies how legitimate hacked credentials are, and there are data breach services that pop up to buy and sell these credentials. I have contacts who tell me that everytime these dumps happen they find a significant number of compromises in their regions, regardless of how many recycled creds are in there. Troy gathered some explanations on how this works:

the tool itself is for sale here [redacted]
it’s pretty cheap
it’s mostly used in Russia, but he does sell an english version
most common use-case: someone buys a dump on x forum, uses the tool to verify which ones are legit
similar to sentryMBA and account hitman
you will often see a uniqueness score associated with the sale based on output

I really appreciate the work done by security researcher Troy Hunt and his site HaveIBeenPwned .  This is a quick and easy way for anyone to check the status of their email or username, as well as to receive notifications of when they may be caught up in a breach. Because the sooner you can change your passwords, the better.

 

My Top 10 List: So What Did We Learn in 2014

malware3

There is no question that 2014 has been a most eventful year for InfoSec – and that’s not necessarily a good thing.  Data breaches, malware attacks, compromised Point-of-Sales systems, more data breaches. And of course – the Sony hack. A lot of painful lessons have been learned, many at high cost. So as the year draws to a close, let me present my Top 10 List of what I hope we learned from this year of events we wish we could forget.

1. PATCH IT. Patch it good! System software patches are an integral part of keeping your business, and yourself, safe.  Windows, Linux, Adobe, Oracle to name a few, all offer regular patches to cover those vulnerabilities that leave them exposed to hackers looking for a way in. Ideally, you should have a regular ie monthly schedule where patches are checked and updated.  Another thing to remember: test patches before you apply them. Microsoft has had two terrible months in a row issuing then recalling bad patches, but not before inflicting some major headaches on those who already applied them.   http://www.darkreading.com/application-security/time-to-rethink-patching-strategies/a/d-id/1318256?_mc=RSS_DR_EDT&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

B5fDUybIUAMF2IG2. THINK before you click that link.  Phishing and malvertising have reached prolific levels, and are designed so well it’s easy for everyone to fall for the bait. The onus is on us to be certain we know and trust the sender before we open attachments or click on links. Visiting popular websites or social media hopping is an open invitation to a nasty case of malware because many of these destinations have now become choice phishing holes. Don’t get lured in.   http://www.esecurityplanet.com/malware/dridex-and-email-a-nasty-social-engineering-team.html

3. Pass on that Password. This is your first and your best defence to secure anything of value.  Here is how to do it right. Ideally a length of 16 characters, with a mix of upper and lower cases, including numbers and special characters. Oh – and take a tip from Sony. Don’t file under “Passwords”. http://www.wired.com/2014/09/dont-get-hacked/?linkId=9521469

4. AntiVirus Protection. There are a range of options, and many good SOHO programs are even free, though I would strongly encourage paying more to invest in additional protection against cyber threats.  And yes – you definitely need to have this on your phone & tablet. Mobile devices are targets of choice. Given how much of our lives we keep on our phones, why would you put that at risk? Finally, don’t rely on out-dated or lapsed programs. In the constantly evolving world of malware and viruses, yesterday’s solutions won’t cut it. Always keep your AV updated.hacking-sony

5. Breach Protocol 101. If you get breached, handle the situation correctly and professionally. Your customers deserve the decency of being informed as soon as possible to protect themselves and take appropriate action. As in the case of Home Depot, don’t make customers wait for the bad news. Because you can’t put a price on trust and reputation. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/international-business/us-business/home-depot-shares-drop-after-chain-investigates-data-breach/article20308768/?cmpid=rss1&click=sf_rob

6. Secure your SOHO tech. Especially routers. Update, upgrade.
http://blog.norsecorp.com/2014/12/18/millions-at-risk-from-misfortune-cookie-soho-router-vulnerability/?utm_content=buffer85c25&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=bufferrouter

7. WiFI Hotspots: Use with extreme caution! In this holiday season of travel and shopping, convenience may be king but letting your guard down isn’t worth it. Secure your tech first – ‘Free’ comes with a price  http://www.onguardonline.gov/articles/0014-tips-using-public-wi-fi-networks

8. Things aren’t so fantastic when you pay in plastic. This year has proven repeatedly that credit cards are not secure. But given that so much our retail and online world run on plastic, what can you do to stay safe? For starters, Always Check Your Statements. Be in charge of your accounts and know everything coming or going. Secondly, cover the keypad when you enter a PIN anywhere.  Because there really are “eyes in the skies” that are waiting for you to enter the magic number.

malware29. You get what you paid for. When you buy pirated software and 3rd party apps, you often get a free gift-with-purchase, but trust me, it’s one you don’t want. Malware, browser hijackers etc. It’s a headache to huntdown and then remove these nuisance products. You’re better off paying for the real deal.  http://www.scmagazine.com/pirated-joomla-wordpress-drupal-themes-and-plugins-contain-cryptophp-backdoor/article/385552/

10. Best for Last. HAVE A PLAN. When it happens – and it will – have a real Disaster Recovery/Business Continuity plan in place.  According to exper Dejan Kosutic, “It is the combination of people and technology that keeps a business running, not computers only, and this is exactly why the concept of business continuity has prevailed in the last couple of years.” According to CISCO, “60% of Canadian businesses either don’t have a security strategy in place, or don’t know if their current one accounts sufficiently for change and evolution to effectively meet threats.” http://www.itworldcanada.com/article/majority-of-canadian-firms-not-prepared-for-cyber-threats-cisco/100226

And on that cheery note, let me wish you all a safe and successful 2015!

Creating A Culture of Security

chart

National Cyber Security Alliance

It’s been quite a year for Tech. And I don’t mean Windows8 or iOS8.  We’ve seen a string of data security breaches – Target, Dairy Queen, Home Depot, each one netting more unsuspecting, unprepared victims.  We’ve read about Chinese hackers letting themselves into our national security databases, like the National Research Council in July.  And the world is still trying to patch the leaks on Linux following the discovery of Bashbug, impacting almost all servers that connect us to the internet, while hackers continue to exploit those vulnerabilities with malicious code and malware.

We don’t know what the next juggernaut coming at us from around the curve is going to be. Malware, data breach, system hack. Or worse. What we do know, based on recent events, is just how unprepared we are for something bigger. There’s a lot of finger-pointing going on, because it’s easy to resort to the blame game. Nobody wants to be held responsible for a disaster.  Especially not when a class-action law suit is likely to follow.  The costs of clean up are staggering. As are the costs of damage done and customers lost.  By all accounts, this is the road that should be less travelled. So how do we make that the case? How do we stop playing catch-up and get out in front of what comes next?

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One:  we need to rethink the whole concept of security in our interconnected world. Corporate Security Officers and Chief Information Officers have a vital role to play in bringing together all levels of their organizations to support and follow security procedures. We can’t keep paying lip service. We need to create a culture of security from within, working together on a common goal to effectively put up a united front. While that is the objective, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Which leads to the next point.

byodTwo: everyone has a role to play in managing security, and it starts with managing our own. Maybe you’ve heard the term “BYOD”? It means “Bring Your Own Device”, an increasing practice by employees in business. Laptops, mobile phones, tablets, flash drives. Portable data is how we live. It’s become how we do business.  All this extra tech finds its way into offices every day. But businesses do not secure personal devices. For the most part, they can’t track them.  The onus is on us as the owners of personal tech to ensure that we have installed adequate levels of virus and malware protection on our devices, and that we consistently perform regular security updates.  As well as following safe practices online so we don’t get phished or download more than we bargained for. If we’re going to bring our devices into work, then we risk exposing all our co-workers, and the safety and integrity of our business, to whatever we do with those devices.   That ounce of prevention we take as individuals really adds up because it’s a massive, costly undertaking to upgrade and repair systems in major organizations. Worse, any changes can take a long time to go through the approval process.  And during a disaster, that is time nobody has.

hackedThree: there is no absolute guarantee of protection. While we expect businesses and organizations to safeguard data and customers, it isn’t realistic. Human error and human fallibility will override whatever measures we put in place. Hackers work around the clock breaking through all the defensive measures currently in place, finding vulnerabilities we didn’t even know existed.  Every mistake we make, like carelessly downloading files or not using antivirus software, gives them the advantage over us and believe me when I say they are watching and waiting for those mistakes. When we commit to our shared responsibility in maintaining our defenses, we commit to building a culture of security from within.

I’m not wearing rose-coloured glasses about how easy this will be. Effecting change is hard, and cultural change is the hardest process. However, we are falling behind in the war on cybercrime, and time is a luxury we soon won’t have.  Cyber espionage is already far more sophisticated and damaging than ever, and cyber warfare may bring a fight to our door that we are not prepared to win. There are a lot of very talented people watching our backdoor, who are telling governments and businesses what they don’t want to hear. We need to listen to those voices, heed their warnings, and start taking action now. Because what we do now will most definitely determine the outcome of what happens next.

Resources: http://www.pcworld.com/article/2825032/linux-botnet-mayhem-spreads-through-shellshock-exploits.html
http://www.cio.com/article/2824268/data-breach/how-to-fend-off-data-breaches.html?utm_campaign=sflow_tweet#tk.rss_all

Putting a Price Tag on Trust: The Home Depot Data Breach

homedepot

In a year of huge data breaches, The Home Depot security breach is proving to be the biggest yet. Upwards of 60 million users in both Canada and the United States could be affected. Yet, Home Depot took too long to officially confirm the news once the story broke, and when they did, the damage was already done. Now, they are facing a lawsuit which will become precedent-setting because how do you put a price tag on trust?

Welcome to the pitfalls of retail responsibility in the age of data insecurity. No matter how businesses may try to spin them, data breaches mean trouble somewhere down the line, and given the money to be made they aren’t going away. Cybercrime is booming beyond anyone’s expectations. Hackers halfway around the globe are constantly upping the game in their quest for information to sell on the black market. That information happens to be a digital summation of our lives: where we live, what we’re worth, who we are. Those little plastic cards that run our lives can also ruin them in one stroke.

The technical details of how cybercriminals lift card numbers, usercodes, and passwords have been well documented over the past year. Infact, the US Department of Homeland Security issued a security advisory in late August warning businesses of the threat of Point of Sale or POS malware, in particular one called “Backoff”  that stole information from credit cards (http://t.co/WiOpgp6c6M). It all comes down to a little piece of equipment we use every day. POS card readers are where we shop, eat, buy gas, withdraw money. And the scary truth is how easily they are tampered with. Crime rings buy or extort their way into fixing the actual hardware to mine data. Cybercriminals have figured out a less obvious route using remote access to command and control the devices so they transmit the data without detection. It’s enough to make anyone paranoid.

pii

Instead of being scared into action, however, businesses seem to have pulled the ostrich hiding its head routine, hoping it would all go away.  But it hasn’t gone away, and the lag time has only afforded the hackers more time to perfect their skills while we struggle to catch up.  A full week passed before The Home Depot officially confirmed the real extent of the breach. The scope of those potentially caught in the net of hackers is still being determined, with 60 million users a conservative estimate.

So just how do you tell 60 million users that their credit card data and other valuable personal information has just been released to the global criminal black market? There is no good way to spin that much bad news, not following recent announcements that Target, UPS, Supervalu Grocery stores,several major US banks, and Dairy Queen had also been breached. Brian Krebs had revealed the hack attack on Target.  On September 2, he broke the news on his website, KrebsOnSecurity, that “a massive batch of stolen credit and debit card information went on sale.” At the outset of the data breach, Home Depot shared dropped. Per an article in The Globe and Mail (trib.al/e8RZclg) , shares in trading fell 3.4%. Now, they face a class-action lawsuit.

The reported costs of a data breach vary, but according to Alcott HR Group, is starts at $5 million for one incident, and another source claims that has now doubled.  But the real loss is in what we cannot truly measure, and that is the very heart of retail business. How do you put a price tag trust, consumer confidence and lost customers?  Taking responsibility for your POS devices means taking the necessary actions to safeguard your customers. The rest of retail is about to learn an invaluable lesson at Home Depot’s considerable expense.